Indus Valley Civilization
- The recent excavations made in 2020 reveal that dairy products were being produced by the Harappans as far back as 2500 BCE. Carbon dating evidences throw light on rural economy of the Civilization. The studies were carried out on 59 shards of pottery from Kotada Bhadli, an archaeological site in Gujarat.
- “When we talk about Harappans, we always refer to the metropolitan cities and the big towns. But we have no idea of the parallel economy – agro-pastoral or rural. We know they had great urban planning, trading systems, jewellery making. But we don’t have any idea how the common masters were living during the Harappan times, their lifestyle and how they were contributing in the larger network.”
- Pots are porous. So as soon as we put any liquid form of food, it will absorb it. The pot preserves the molecules of food such as fats and proteins. Using techniques like C16 and C18 analysis we can identify the source of lipids.
- “It is very difficult to pinpoint. Traces were seen in cooking vessels indicating that milk may have been boiled and consumed. We also found residues in a bowl showing that either heated milk or curd could have been served. There are also remains of a perforated vessel, and similar vessels were used in Europe to make cheese. So it is possible that they were further processing milk into different forms.”
- “The Harappans did not just use dairy for their household. The large herd indicates that milk was produced in surplus so that it could be exchanged and there could have been some kind of trade between settlements. This could have given rise to an industrial level of dairy exploitation.”
- The most fascinating thing about the Indus Valley Civilisation is that it is faceless – there is no king, no bureaucratic organisations, but there are these very close regional interactions between settlements, a symbiotic relationship of give and take that helped the civilisation survive far so long.
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